In vitro models of thrombosis and hemostasis
Abnormalities in hemostatic response are responsible for a large number of life-threatening conditions, however, despite many decades of research, today there are no reliable ways to correct hemostasis without significant risks of thrombosis or bleeding. This situation reflects a poor understanding of the key mechanisms that regulate the hemostatic response. To uncover the principles underlying the regulation of hemostasis, both experimental models and theoretical approaches are actively used. This review focuses on current in vitro models of thrombosis and hemostasis and describes key approaches and tools for studying blood coagulation outside the human/animal body. To reconstruct this process, both microfluidic technologies and approaches based on manufacturing artificial vessels using a variety of hydrogels are actively used. In vitro models of thrombosis traditionally mimic non-penetrating damage to the vessel wall and have been used for more than 30 years to uncover the key processes responsible for the formation of arterial thrombi. Models of in vitro hemostasis have been actively developed only in recent years and are focused ono crucial mechanisms governing the formation of hemostatic plugs - clots that stop bleeding upon a penetrating vascular injury. Modern in vitro models of thrombosis and hemostasis are used not only as tools for fundamental research but are also introduced into clinical practice.