Annexin V: the membrane-binding protein with diverse functions
Annexin V is an eukaryotic protein from the annexin family which is able to reversibly bind to phospholipid membranes in a Ca2+-dependent manner. It possesses a complex mechanism of the membrane binding which includes the two-dimensional lattice formation from annexin V trimers and significant variation of the membrane structure. The precise functions of annexin V are largely unknown, however, its participation in the blood coagulation, membrane repair process and the Ca2+ channel activity is suggested. The usage of annexin V as a marker of phosphatidylserine-positive cells in in vitro and in vivo studies makes the understanding of the protein role in cellular processes critically important.
The current review is focused on the structure of annexin V and the mechanism and kinetics of its membrane binding. The lipid specificity and the multimerization process will be described. Finally, some of the proposed annexin V functions including inhibition of the blood coagulation and the Ca2+ transport activity will be discussed.